History & Culture
Christopher Columbus – Man Who Discovered United States Of America
Category : History & Culture
Country : USA

Columbus was born on 31st October 1451 in Italy (The Republic of Genoa), to the son of Domenico Colombo a middle class wool weaver. His mother name was Susanna Fontanarossa. He was having 3 brothers & 1 sister. On 1479, he got married with the beautiful lady Dona Felipa, unfortunate he lost his wife after his son’s birth. His son’s name was Diego. He was born in 1480.  When Columbus was teenager he got his first job on merchant ship, in 1470s some French privateers’ attack on his ship when it was sailing on north. The whole ship was sunk, but the young man Columbus floated on some wooden scrap on the way of Lisbon. Who knew that the boy will change the world forever?

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Columbus started taking interest for westward voyages. He learned of the Atlantic Ocean voyages and sailors’ were reported of land to the west of the Madeira Islands and the Azores. Columbus accepted that Marco Polo’s erroneous location for Japan was 2,400 km east of China. Also he accepted that Ptolemy’s underestimation of the circumference of the Earth & the size of the Eurasian landmass. He started believing that Japan was about 4,800 km from west of Portugal & distance that marked sailed in existing vessels. Furthered by his suggestion of the Florentine cosmographer Paolo dal Pozzo Toscanelli. Columbus sought in 1484, support for an exploratory voyage from King John 2 of Portugal, but he got refusal and the Portuguese also underestimated the distance.

Columbus Journey

Soon in 1485, Columbus went to Spain with his son there he spent seven years of his life to get support from Isabella I of Castile. Soon he was granted for that and he received from court, by giving a small annuity, and they gained both friends and enemies too. Again he got final refusal in 1492 made, then Columbus decided to go @ France, and he got his final call to Isabella proved successful. And then an agreement made between the crown and Columbus set the terms for the expedition.

The First Voyage

Pinta, Niña, and Santa María were outfitted for the minor port of Palos. Two brothers —  Alonso Pinzón, who got the command on Pinta, and his younger brother Vicente, who commanded on the Niña. They left Palos on August 3, 1492; rerigged the Niña is called a Canary Islands; and sailed to the west. On October 12, 1492, Columbus named San Salvador and historians later identified in Island in the Bahamas as Witling Island. In 1986 a group  that the true landfall was Samana Cay, 105 km to the south.

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A  friendly population that Columbus called Indians. After some time the expedition floated on to Cuba, the delegation was went to seek the court of the Mongol emperor of China and gold. Then in December they sailed towards east in Hispaniola, where, at Christmas, the  María was wrecked near Cap-Haïtien. He found that an Indians seemed friendly, because of that 39 men were left on the island for the settlement of Navidad till Columbus trun back  to Spain. He had sailed on west from the Canaries; and after that sailed north before heading east and so again found favorable winds, Alonso, who had explored with the Pinta, rejoined Columbus, but till that time the ships were separated at sea. In 1493, in the month of march Columbus finally landed in Lisbon and was interviewed by John II. Later he went to Palos & across Spain to Barcelona, over there he was warmly welcomed by Isabella and her husband. Columbus claimed that he reached islands just off the coast of Asia and brought with him gold, Indians and artifacts.

The Second Voyage

In 1493 Portuguese claims to Columbus that he discoveries led Pope Alexander VI for issuing papal bulls. The world into areas opened to colonization by Portugal & Spain. Both the nations moved into line of demarcation by 370 leagues on the west of the Cape Verde Islands by the Treaty of Tordesillas (1494) and undertook colonization.

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Ferdinand and Isabella found by, Columbus sailed from Cádiz on his 2nd  voyage on 25th September, 1493. At this movement he as having total 17 ships with 1,500 men around. Again they stopped in the Canaries and made landfall on 3rd November, 1493,. The expedition sailed through Lesser Antilles; islands were named and sighted, and some were landed on.

The Third Voyage

In 1497 Columbus got the finally authorization to made a third voyage after the Portuguese had sent Vasco daGama off to India. On July 31 he made landfall on Trinidad, 1498 Despite difficulties in a crew, Columbus stared Spain in May 1498. With six ship,. The next day he reached the mainland and thus encountered South America.

Founded pearls at islands near the coast, the expedition then sailed across the Caribbean to Santo Domingo. There were in revolt, and Columbus soon had to face a royal commissioner, Francisco de Bobadilla, who arrived from Spain of 1500 best powers. Columbus brothers were removed the Columbus brothers from the government and sent them back to Spain in chains. Although the ship’s captain was willing to remove the shackles, Christopher insisted on going before Ferdinand and Isabella bound.

Fourth Voyage

Royal command after arrival in Cádiz in November 1500, he mounted a fourth expedition. May 1502 he left Spain, made a landfall at sailed and Martinique to Santo Domingo. After many problems he finally rescued, and he reached Spain in 23rd November 1504.

May 20, 1506, he was pressing his claims at court. He was in believed that he had reached Asia. He no longer had the crown and royal support had, from 1495 onward

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